ABSTRACTION

To Miss _ On Her Playing upon the Harpsichord In a Room Hung with Some Flower-pieces of Her Own Painting- Samuel Johnson

When charms thus press on ev'ry sense,
What thought of flight, or of defence?
Deceitful Hope, and vain Desire,
forever flutter o'er her lyre,
Delighting, as her youth draws nigh,
To point the glances of her eye,
And forming, with unerring art,
Now Chains to hold the captive heart.


An abstraction is a sort of metaphor or symbol connecting an intangible thing to a concrete, real, tangible one (for example,a handshake symbolizes friendship). Throughout the entire poem, Samuel Johnson connects "Stella"'s music and art to her "wily love." Basically, the beauty of her art represents her physical beauty, which he feels she should control so that he can control himself (as a pre-feminist piece, the man of course has no responsibility). "deceitful Hope" and "vain Desire" - the feelings the narrator has for the woman- are abstract ideas, but are made real by her music, for music can sound hopeful or full of desire. The music does not create these feelings: it makes them seem more real to the narrator.




ALLITERATION
To Miss _ On Her Playing upon the Harpsichord In a Room Hung with Some Flower-pieces of Her Own Painting- Samuel Johnson

When Stella strikes a tuneful string,
in scenes of imitated spring...
...And Pleasure propagates around...
...Could Stella, sprightly, fair and young,...
...And wisdom warble from her string....


Alliteration is used ostensibly for two purposes in this poem. The first is in describing "Stella." In both the first and third quote, "S" is alliterated with Stella, perhaps to give more rhythm to areas talking about her in order to subliminally create a certain view of her? Alliteration is also used to emphasize two effects of her art: The first, to propagate pleasure, as the narrator believes she does, and the second to warble wisdom, as the narrator believes she should. They are minor details, but it is interesting that the two main locations of alliteration are positioned in such a way.

ALLUSION

Jane Eyre-page 104

... She commenced singing a song from some opera. It was the strain of a forsaken lady, who, after bewailing the perfidy of her lover, calls pride to her aide; desires her attendant to deck her in her brightest jewels and richest robes, and resolves to meet the false one that night at a ball, to prove to him, by the gaiety of her demeanor, how little his desertion had affected her.

This passage is an obvious allusion to some unnamed opera. This opera in a sense tells Mr. Rochester's story. He was heartbroken in Paris by his lover, and now fills his life with material accumulation to fil the void, though one could interpret that he is really doing this to prove his recovery to himself, rather than to his lover. It is interesting that the genders are reversed, but more significant that Adele, the object of some scanal concerning his romance, is isnging the song. It is an interesting choice of narrator, as if Pearl had told the story of her parents downfall in The Scarlett Letter, but it helps the reader draw the intended connection.

ANTAGONIST

Jane Eyre, by Charolette Bronte

"Jane, be still; don't struggle do, like a wild, frantic bird that is rending its own plumage in its deperation."
"I am no bird; and no net ensnares me; I am a free human being with an independant will; which I now exert to leave you."
...
"You, Jane, I must have you for my own-- entirely my own. Will you be mine? Say yes, quickly."


In this dialogue in Chapter 23, the antagonist (and victor, for now) is Rochester. He is clearly trying to subdue the independent nature of Jane. It is in his nature to feel superior and subdue people, and this is probably why he is so attracted to Jane: she is so independent and does not give this up freely, and he wishes to master her. This passage shows this, when he describes her own decisions the struggling of "a wild, frantic bird". Jane asserts the "no net ensnares [her]," but it becomes clear that Rochester's does. His proposal sounds like that of a greedy child begging his mom for a toy. He wants to own her, which completely compromises her spirit and character. He orders her to say yes to his ownership, making himself the antagonist, for his actions in this dialogue act completely against Jane's best path of character development, and take away from her potential.


DICTION
Jane Eyre- page 133

"... He looked precociously grim, cushioning his massive head against the swelling back of his chair, and recieving the light of the fire on his granite-hewn features, and in his great, dark eyes; for he had great, dark eyes, and very fine eyes, too- not without certain change in their depth sometimes, which, if it was not softness, reminded you, at least, of that feeling. "

This passage is the main physical description of Mr, Rochester, so diction is obviously important, and aides characterization much. The fact that he is described as "precociously grim" shed light on how his "grim" nature contrasts with his wealthy setting. His head is described as "massive," which may allude to a large brain and/or vast intelligence and wisdom. The fact that his features are "granite-hewn" reveals his adamant character, that he is tough, and that life has made him tough.And yet, these features would almost betray him, were it not for the "softness" of his "great, dark eyes." Eyes are said to be the window of the soul, and the fact that his are dark show the mystery of his character; their greatness reveals its vastness. And their softness reveals that, although tough on the exterior, he has a gentle heart, or at least a well meaning conscience.


EPIGRAM
"One Perfect Rose"- Dorothy Parker

A single flow'r he sent me, since we met.
All tenderly his messenger he chose;
Deep-hearted, pure, with scented dew still wet-
One perfect rose.

I knew the language of the floweret;
"My fragile leaves," it said, "his heart enclose
Love long has taken for his amulet
One perfect rose.

Why is it no one ever sent me yet
One perfect limousine, do you suppose?
Ah no, it's always just my luck to get
One perfect rose.


The last two lines of the poem are an epigram- a witty conclusion to a poem than makes a point about a person or situation. In this case, the epigram actually serves to show the author's true feelings. In the first two stanzas, the author seems to be content with the "one perfect rose," and appreciates its significance.However, the last stanza shows that the author wants more than a rose. The repetition of "one perfect rose" adds to this final sly twist, because the idea of the rose changes from a cherished gift to a simple, over-rated accessory. The way the tone shift at the end happens so suddenly, cleverly and unexpectedly, makes the conclusion an epigram, and indeed it does comment on a person (the author), and sheds new light on them.



EXPOSITORY-

Ethan Frome- Edith Wharton, page 7-8

During the Earliest part of my stay I had been struck by the stark contrast between the vitality of the climate and the deadness of the community. Day by day, after the December snows were over, a blazing blue sky poured down torrents of light and air on the white landscape, which gave them back an intenser glitter. One would have supposed that such an atmosphere must quicken the emotions as well as the blood; but it seemed to produce no change except that of retarding still more the sluggish pulse of Starkfield.

This passage shows an exposition of Starkfield that reveals a lot about it. Within just a few months, our narrator has come to realize that Starkfield is an incredibly dull, slow-moving setting, and setting up this setting affects the story greatly. Much of Ethan's desire for Mattie is probably fueled by his desire for excitement, to escape the plodding norm. We see from his past and his interest in the narrator's magazine that he is more inquisitive than those around him, and this sets him apart in an already lonely landscape. The exposition of Starkfield here provided sets the reader up for the story knowing the setting, which, in this case, is vitally important.

FOIL
Jane Eyre- Charlotte Bronte

"I assure you, I want to be your friend... Jane, you don't understand these things: children must be corrected for their faults. But you are passionate, Jane, that you must allow..."-(Mrs. Reed)

"What we tell you... is for your good. You should try to be useful and pleasant, then, perhaps, you could have a home here; but if you becaome passionate and rude, Missis will sendyou away I'm sure."(Bessie)

"'What does Bessie care for me? She is always scolding me.' 'Becasue you're such a queer, frightened, shy, little thing. You should be bolder.'"

In the first few chapters of Jane Eyre, Bessie is a foil for Mrs. Reed. Though she outwarly seems scolding and harsh much of the time, this is usually in the prescence of the other maid. However, as we later see, she really cared for Jane, and actually encouraged her. This contrasts greatly with Mrs. Reed, who wants Jane to be quiet and useful: to fit her station. The constrast between these opposing view, as weel as the way Bessie gently tries to convince Jan to follow Mrs. Eyre's rules, intensifies the reader's view of Mrs. Reed as an opressive, cruel woman. If she had been one of many, it would be normal. But ahving a character who loves Jane as Mrs. Reed should really brings her forward as unusually cruel and inhumane.


IMAGERY

Ethan Frome- Edith Wharton page, 50

The winter morning was clear as crystal. The sunrise burned red in a pure sky, the shadows on the rim of the wood-lot were darkly blue, and beyond the white and scintillating fields patches of far-off forest hung like smoke.

This passage precedes the day when Ethan realizes that he will spend a night alone with Maddie, and foreshadows turmoil. I remember hearing one meteorological phrase when I was younger that somehow stuck with me- "Red sun at night, sailor's delight: Red sun in the morning, sailors take warning." Basically, if a red sun rises, you can look forward to a storm. In this passage, the rising red sun foreshadows the moral strife to come as Ethan struggles to decide between what he wants and what his conscience tells him. It's also worth noting that the sun rose "in a pure sky," perhaps meaning that Ethan's intentions are essentially innocent (his idea of an exciting night alone is sitting at the fire), despite their moral ambiguity. This foreshadowing is imagery because it connects an image to an idea, and, for that matter, nature to the story.

MOTIF(reverse)
Jane Eyre- Charlotte Bronte

"Mrs. Reed surveyed me at times with a stern eye, but seldom addressed me:since my illness, she had drawn a more marked line of separation between me and her own children; appointing me a small closet to sleep in by myself, condemning me to take my meals alone, and pass all my time in the nursery, while my cousins were constantly in the drawing room."

"I am glad you are no relation of mine: I will never call you aunt again as long as I live!"

"John Reed was a schoolboy of fourteen years old; four years older than I, for I ws but ten; large and stoutfor his age, with a dingy and unwholesome skin; thick lineaments in a spacious visage , heavy limbs and large extremities. He gorged himself habitually at the table, which made him bilbous, and gave him a dim and blearewdeye and flabby cheeks. He ought now to have been at school; but his mama had taken him home for a month or two, 'on account of his delicate health'.... John had... an antipathy to me. He bullied and punished me..."

"Mrs. Reed was a rather stout woman..."

It seems that J.K. Rowling has once again betrayed her creativity, for the scenes from Harry Potter at Number Four Privet Drive are almost certainly modeled after the opening chapters of Jane Eyre. However, through this we see certain motifs revealed. The first and second quotes show the motif of repression leading to rebellion, especially against the family. Jane Eyre was repressed by her Aunt, and, with nowhere for her feelings to go, she revolted against her and tried to disown her, similarly to how Harry runs away when he feels he can take no more of the Dursley's abuse. Though perhaps not a motif, it is also striking that the two live in closets, and are orphaned cousins. Another motif revealed is the character motif of the oversized bully. Again, John reed seems a near perfect copy of Dudley Dursley, but aside from that we have Anvil from that short story from 9th grade that I can't remember the name of, who also bullied... a character to the point of rebellion, and who was also somewhat pudgy.


POINT OF VIEW

Benito Cereno- Herman Melville

But the good conduct of Babo, hardly more than the ill-behavior of others, seemed to withdraw the half-lunatic Don Benito from his cloudy languor. Not that such precisely was the impression made by the Spaniard on the mind of his visitor. The Spaniard's individual unrest was, for present, but noted as a conspicuous feature in the ship's general affliction. Still, Captain Delano was not a little concerned at what he could not help taking for the time to be Don Benito's unfriendly indifference towards himself. The Spaniard's manner, too, displayed a sort of sour and gloomy disdain, which he seemed at no pains to disguise.

This story is told from the third person limited perspective, meaning that, while the narrator is an outside observer, their knowledge and perspectives are generally limited to those of a specific character. This passage reveals this, for it portrays Babo as the protagonist, as Delano would have seen him, though he is really the antagonist (to Delano and Benito). Looking back, seeing that the narrator- and therefore Delano- notices that Cereno's gloom embodies the attitude of the whole ship, we see Delano just a few steps away from drawing the right conclusions, but never arriving at them. Perhaps, also, Cereno did not hide his "gloomy disdain" purposefully, in an attempt to help Delano catch on. At this point in the story, the point of view still leaves us clueless as to the truth, but looking back, it is interesting to see how close it was, showing that the author was consistent in maintaining a point of view that had the truth just outside its field of vision, making the reader infer the truth for themselves.

SATIRICAL

"Richard Corey"- Edwin Arlington Robinson

Whenever Richard Corey went down town,
We people on the pavement looked at him;
He was a gentleman from sole to crown,
Clean favored, and imperially slim.

And he was always quietly arrayed,
And he was always human when he talked;
But still he fluttered pulses when he said,
"Good-morning," and he glittered when he walked.

And he was rich- yes, richer than a king,
And admirably schooled in every grace;
In fine, we thought that he was everything
To make us wish that we were in his place.


So on we worked, and waited for the light,
And went without meat, and cursed the bread;
And Richard Cory, one calm summer night,
Went home and put a bullet through his head.


"Richard Corey" is a commentary on the emptiness of excess, and a satirical one at that. Satire is designed to amuse, but also to make an almost sarcastic point about some condition. By these standards, this poem is dark satire, for the humor is quite morbid, but satire nonetheless. A poem such as this, describing a suicide, would normally be mournful, but the sing-song rhythm and basic rhyme pattern of this poem give it a morbid flavor, not really sad at all. We can not predict what the poem is about until the last two lines (a which point it is not a prediction, but whatever). There are many descriptions throughout the poem of Richard Cory being regal in his wealth such as "a gentleman from sole to crown," and "richer than a king"(as shown in blue). AS shown in green, the poor envied him greatly. But all his wealth apparantly only created emptiness in him. This is the irony depicted by the satire. It is interesting that he killed himself on "one calm summer night," such as when we can just stop and think. Calm implies lack of excitement. Perhaps Cory could not live without this excitement, could not be at peace, and so killed himself when confronted with peace. So the satir could go deeper into commenting on not only the wealthy lifestyle, but the ast lifestyle. Cory's emptiness is also illustrated by his "fluttering pulses," an image which conjures adjectivals such as "weak" and "faltering." All of this commentary in a sing-song style with the point brought up in a grimly unexpected conclusion makes this poem very good satire.


SELECTION OF DETAIL

Jane Eyre, Charolette Bronte

Descending the laurel walk I faced the wreck of the chestnut tree; it stood up, black and riven: the trunk, split down the center, gasped ghastly. The cloven halves had not broken away from each other, for the firm base and strong roots kept them unsundered below; though community of vitality was destroyed- the sap could flow no more: their great boughs on each side were dead, and next winter's winter's tempests would be sure to fell one or both to the earth: as yet, however, they might be said to form one tree- a ruin, but an entire tree


This passage describes the chestnut tree (the one that got struck by lighting) as a sort of metaphor foreshadowing a likewise splintered relationship, probably that of Jane and Ed Rochester (this was the tree at which they were engaged). The selection of certain details within the passage expounds upon its meaning as a metaphor. For example, the "firm base and roots of the tree," may show the underlying similarities, such as intelligence, or the force of attraction that keep Jane and Rochester together on a base level. However, the fact that "the sap could flow no more" shows that there will be a loss of attraction or communication (both the lifeblood of relationships) between Jane and Rochester. The two dead boughs show that either the two can not live (at least normally) without one another, or that their relationship has destroyed them. The fact that all of this was caused by a lightning bolt foreshadows a turning point or crucial event that will immediately split their relationship. The boughs' weakness shows that the two are weak without one another- maybe they became too close, or that their relationship is so weakened that they may break off at the slightest touch. The ultimate remaining unity is stressed at the end of the passage by showing "an entire tree" still remaining, in effect.


TONE-

"The Prelude"- William Wordsworth
"...Lustily
I dipped my oars into the silent lake,
And, as I rose upon the stroke, my boat
Went heaving through the water like a swan;

When, from behind that craggy steep till then
The horizon's bound, a huge peak, black and huge,
As if with voluntary power instinct
Upreared its head. I struck and struck again,
And growing still in stature the grim shape
Towered up between me and the stars..."


This passage shows a transition in tones that illuminates a change in the mood of what happens in the poem. The prose goes from a calm, placid remembrance to a frightened, almost frantic recount, as the author is faced with a challenge he feels he can not overcome. This change in tone, from calm confidence to frenzied fear, helps support the dark, defeated theme of the poem, that some things are too great to be overcome. It also gives a neat vibe to the poem, an eerie, bone-chilling aura which would have been missed with a different tone, or without the tone changes.